In the early 1950s, Dr. William McD. Hammon and the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis (NFIP) launched a pioneering medical experiment on a scale never witnessed before. Conducted on over 55,000 healthy children in Utah, Texas, Iowa, and Nebraska, the study aimed to assess the safety and effectiveness of a blood fraction, known as gamma globulin (GG), to prevent paralytic polio. Based on the positive outcome of the experiment, a national immunization program was launched by the federal government, which became America’s first polio control effort.
- Charles R. Rinaldo, “Passive Immunization Against Poliomyelitis: The Hammon Gamma Globulin Field Trials, 1951-1953.” American Journal of Public Health. 95, 5, (May 2005): 790-799.
- Stephen E. Mawdsley, “Fighting Polio: Selling the Gamma Globulin Field Trials, 1950-1953.” (PhD dissertation, University of Cambridge: 2012).
- Stephen E. Mawdsley, Selling Science: Polio and the Promise of Gamma Globulin (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 2016).
- Thomas Hsing-Teh Wang, “Gamma Globulin: The Development and Implementation of a Polio Preventive in the 1950s.” A.B., honours thesis, Harvard University, 1997.
- Stephen Mawdsley, “Houston in vanguard of battle against polio,” Houston Chronicle, May 2, 2010
- Cody Clark, “UK researcher seeks former Utah County polio study participants,” Provo Daily Herald, March 19, 2009.
- Joanne Fox, “Doctoral candidate includes Sioux City polio information in dissertation,” Sioux City Journal, July 21, 2010.